2021 年 12 巻 p. 4-18
School closures have been introduced as part of social distancing measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic worldwide. To mitigate the negative impact of the learning loss caused by school closures, countries have made significant efforts to ensure equitable access to quality learning, mainly by providing distance learning opportunities. However, there is a scarcity of empirical studies which explore the reality of how children have engaged in learning during the pandemic, especially in developing countries. The overall purpose of this study is to compare the policy actions and inequality in access to learning opportunities among primary and secondary school-aged children in three developing countries in Eastern Africa, namely Kenya, Uganda, and Malawi. This study used high-frequency phone survey data. The study found that only a small proportion of children engaged in learning activities used distance learning tools, including low-tech and one-way ones such as radios. It was also found that inequality in learning engagement exists among children who are out of distance learning platforms; it is potentially more severe in less developed counties.