This paper focuses on the mechanism of task distribution in a design process. US projects are comparatively researched to clarify the uniqueness of task distribution in Japanese projects. In every project, a design organization is composed with technically specialized design teams, such as architects, structural engineers, mechanical engineers, electrical engineers, plumbing engineers, and other consultants (Fig. 2). The design teams divide the design tasks based on their specialty. Among the design teams, an architectural design team is staffed with architects. Architects divide their design tasks based on their specialty as well. These task distributions both in a design organization and an architectural design team are investigated. Draftsman and interns are eliminated from the survey, due to their non-certified professional status.
Projects in the both countries are investigated to clarify the task distribution among technically specialized design teams. Ten US Design-Bid-Build projects are researched as a case study of design organization (Table1). Many consultants are called upon the project based on the highly segmented technical specialization. In architectural design, specialized professions such as Spec Writer or Building Permit Experditer only been found in the US practices. In engineering design, plumbing engineers are recognized in all of the US projects, whereas, the plumbing design is usually taken care by mechanical engineers in Japan. Standardization of the CAD format helps fluent information exchange for task distribution among US professionals. Ten Japanese Design-Bid Build projects are surveyed as a comparison (Table2). Segmentation of the technical specialization is less obvious. However, technically specialized fabricators and suppliers offer their product design information free of charge, under the notion of “Design Assistance (sekkei kyoryoku), ” in the hopes of their products will be specified and installed in the construction.
Projects in the both countries are further investigated to clarify different exercise of the task distribution in the architectural design team. In the US, some architects only participate the initial part of the design process such as SD and DD phases, and the others involve in the latter part of the design process such as DD and CD phases (Fig. 4). The distribution of the design tasks is recognized in the design process. Standardization of CAD format may help to accelerate information sharing among architects. In Japan, architects tend not to divide their design tasks. They are inclined to participate the project from the beginning of the design phase to the end of the construction administration phase (Fig. 5).