2017 年 82 巻 737 号 p. 1725-1733
This paper focuses on the planning process and improvement method of transit mall using the first transit mall in Seoul City called Yonsei Street as case study. Yonsei Street was created in 2014.
As recently transit malls are internationally spread for the improvement of the pedestrian safety, and the revitalization of the region. This was appeared as in case of Japan where there are 20 cases for transit mall; however, only 3 cases are operating regularly, and the others were discontinued on the pilot program. In case of Korea, there are 3 cases such as Chung-Ang street in Deagu city that was created in 2009. Recently, the concern of transit mall has been increased by the local governments. However, there are common issues in the implementation of transit mall that seen in both Japan and Korea such as the traffic control of main streets that resulted from locating these transit malls in the city center, and a consensus building among many stakeholders.
This study aims to 1) clarify the primary factors to how to implement the transit mall. This was done via conducting a survey on Yonsei Street as a case study based on the planning process, and to 2) suggest the issues and improvement method that suitable and applicable to the Korean community. The case study was analyzed via field surveys, document reviews, and interviews with local administrative offices (Seodaemun Ward and Seoul City) and merchant associations concerned with the implementation of transit mall of Yonsei Street.
In Chapter 2, we reviewed the law system for both Japan and Korea related to transit mall. It was clarified that the central government in Korea has 1) the district designation system of transit mall based on the Road Traffic Promotion Act and, 2) introduced a specific subsidy system to the district designated by the law in order to realize a transit mall.
Chapter 3 reviews the selection process for the sites that were proposed by the local government (10 sites). It was clarified that there are no inaccessible facilities after the implementation of transit mall, and no median exclusive bus lane for BRT (Bus Rapid Transit) as common characteristics. In addition, the streets of proposed sites have approximately 600m in length, and 20~30m in width.
In Chapter 4, it is determined the characteristics of consensus building process and spatial improvement. It was clarified that the construction of local organization related to the street spatially and the role of merchant association are important for the consensus building.
Chapter 5 points out the issues on the street management of transit mall; which are 1) Change of human traffic flow after the spatial improvement, 2) Consideration of vulnerable users who need their own car, 3) Absence of law system for the violation of traffic regulations on a transit mall.
Consequently, based on the planning process of transit mall in Yonsei Street, this paper suggests four primary factors that help to achieve the transit mall, which are 1) the organization of law system, 2) the construction of selection process based on the proposed sites, 3) the existence of the local association based on a neutral position. and 4) the coincidence of interests among the stakeholders. Moreover, it points out three issues of the planning process that are 1) the continuity of the organization for the coordination of opinion on stakeholders related to the street spatially, 2) the management of local needs that based on the change of space use after the spatial improvement, and 3) The role of local organization for solving local problems and using street spaces autonomously.