This research focuses on the city planning of Beppu city before WW2.
Beppu is one of the famous tourist destinations in Japan since late modern period. Its start of city planning was a road development project started in 1906. It lasted for about 20years and the road of the Beppu city changed to grid patterns.
After city status were given to Beppu in 1924, the discussion about the city planning of Beppu city started. Because Beppu had unique characteristics as a tourist destination, city planning engineers from the Japanese government had much interest in and expectation to the planning. On the other hand, engineers from Oita prefecture and Beppu city, who were in charge of the planning, struggled with the methodology to plan.
The city planning law was applied to Beppu city in 1927 and just after that Mr. Hiroyuki Kayanoki, an engineer from the Home Ministry, visited Beppu city and decided the vision of Beppu city as “the city with a scenic view and hot spring”. Along the lines of the vision, engineers from Oita prefecture and Beppu city cooperated and worked together on the planning of streets in 1932 and land use in 1935.
Characteristics as a tourist destination were reflected in the planning of them. As for the streets, the railway track and the street was planned as grade intersections to avoid the atmosphere of the tourist destination. As for the land use, the ratio of the industrial areas was only 3% of the city planning area.
However, the planning regarding streets and the use of land only covered the city central area and most of the suburbs had no city planning. This situation encouraged Beppu city to make plans on its own in 1937, which was called as “Sento Toshi Keikaku (Hot spring capital city planning)”. Beppu city created the plan with the help of Dr. Tokutaro Kitamura, who was an engineer from the Home Ministry, and Prof. Eitaro Sekiguchi, who was a specialist of landscape architecture. It included the planning of streets, parks and tourist facilities.
Also Dr. Tokutaro Kitamura was in charge of the planning of scenic districts. The scenic districts surrounded the city area. Not only natural areas but also tourist attractions and recreation areas for residents were also included in the scenic districts.
Even after the Sino-Japanese war was started in July 1937, Beppu city continued making efforts to realize the plan. One large park was created following the Sento Toshi Keikaku with the help of a private company in 1942. Three large land readjustment plans were designed to control over lands, which were owned by owners outside Beppu city.
In the previous research, it was mentioned that the city planning technique for the tourist destination before WW2 was the “park system”, which connects parks by roads. However, in Beppu, one of the famous tourist destinations in Japan, how to control land and space were one of the issues to be solved by city planning techniques.