This research explores how to plan resettlement after natural disasters through case study of Tamaura-West district, Iwanuma-city, Miyagi prefecture which is one of large-scale relocation sites most rapidly completed in restoration from the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. This paper clarified characters of behavior by the residents of Tamaura-West district through analyzing actual condition of the household separation and reorganization.
Characters of family structure in coastal area of Iwanuma-city before the disaster is 1) multi-generation family is major and mutual aid based on rural community remain, 2) nuclear family is increasing as aspect of suburbs of Sendai-city. It is clarified through interview research that the residents intend to keep their households and maintain their family relationship because they need to care their old parents or young children or they have to follow custom of the community. However, it is often difficult to realize the intention due to economic difficulties or disagreement of their family. In the case it is clarified that the residents try to maintain their family relationship with idea about the way of living (cf. living together again or living near etc.) even if their household is different from it before the disaster.
In addition, this paper examined location of characteristic behaviors of the residents described above in the trends of whole the district with questionnaire for all households of the district. As the result it is clarified that just over 30% of the residents experienced separation with their family in the process of evacuation and just over 60% of them (just over 80% in self-reconstruction households) maintain their family relationship with idea about the way of living. it is difficult and even undesirable in some cases in restoration and relocation from tsunami disaster to reconstruct the living environment which is physically same before the disaster. However, it is possible to alternate or recover previous functions with some social relationship even if living environment was changed. Based on the results, the behaviors of the residents are understood as efficient for mitigation of problems concern to drastic change of living environment caused by environment transition.
The behaviors to maintain family relationship described above are possible with some range of choice for dwelling and planning of Tamaura-West district contribute to expand the range of choice for the residents. Household separation is trend continued before the disaster. On the other hand, the residents alternate or recover previous functions of caring their family member with ideas of way of living, for example, living near with multiple generation or keeping relations with previous neighborhood in the district etc. It is confirmed with answer for reason of selecting the present house and settlement that the ideas of way of living are realized through characters in the planning of the districts, such as mixture of housing types (support of self-construction of own house, supply of disaster public rental house), succession of previous communities in relocation (keeping previous neighborhood in the district, adjustment of plot to move in) based on rapidity of project progress and convenience of location for their living.
On the other hand, there are various restrictions or struggle due to existing customs and restoration institutions about family and living. They sometimes have negative affect on the activeness in behaviors the residents.