日本建築学会環境系論文集
Online ISSN : 1881-817X
Print ISSN : 1348-0685
ISSN-L : 1348-0685
高齢者福祉施設における消防訓練の評価方法に関する研究
山村 太一村井 裕樹栗岡 均小林 恭一佐藤 博臣大西 一嘉
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2020 年 85 巻 771 号 p. 299-309

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 As residents of nursing homes for the elderly are mostly occupied with people who have difficulty in evacuating themselves, what facility staff need to do at the time of fire is many and varied. Fire drill is extremely important for facility staff to respond appropriately in case of fire.

 Past questionnaire surveys indicate that facility staff do not know whether their fire drill is good or bad, and that many staff are uneasy about responding to fires at night. However, no method has been established to evaluate the quality of fire drill. So, in this research, we construct the method to evaluate the contents of the fire drill such as the staff behavior. The purpose is to make it possible for staff to know the improvement point of the fire protection system of their own facility including human response, and to reduce anxiety of the staff by that.

 In order to evaluate the behavior of the staff in the fire drill, first, set the tactics that should be performed when the target facility fires at night. This tactic incorporates horizontal evacuation assuming night fire of nursing homes for the elderly. Next, the extent to which the fire drill actually conducted at the facility has been achieved for the tactics is evaluated for each of the following indicators.

 (1) Evacuation characteristics of the facility: Evaluate by the ratio of Proposal estimated evacuation time (it means the time required to temporarily protect all residents in the fire compartment from smoke etc. and to prevent the outflow of smoke etc. to other fire compartments. it is calculated using the necessary flow distance and the required time and movement speed of the action obtained from the previous report) to evacuation target time

 (2) The appropriateness of role assignment is determined by the ratio of the time required for each staff member to the expected evacuation time (the time calculated from the action taken and the evacuation route taken in the fire drill and the required time etc. used for the Proposal estimated evacuation time).

 (3) Appropriateness of staff flow line: Evaluate by the ratio of movement distance of conventional estimated evacuation time to movement distance of proposal estimated evacuation time.

 (4) Efficiency of action: Evaluate the ratio of the evacuation completion time of the actual fire drill to the conventional estimated evacuation time.

 (5) Basic action: Evaluate by the implementation rate in the actual fire drill for the action group necessary for the horizontal evacuation tactic set in advance.

 (6) Compartment formation: Evaluate how many places where the division of the fire source and surrounding space and the smoke exhaust operation are required have been carried out.

 A case study of fire drill evaluation was conducted by applying the above evaluation method to the fire drill that was actually conducted at the nursing homes for the elderly. The fire drill was conducted at three facilities, and at two of them, the fire drill that has been conventionally performed at the facility and that suggested the flow line and the flow of implementation from the authors were performed. It was confirmed that the results of the case study were able to extract the features of each fire drill, such as the lack of actions related to heat and smoke confinement in the conventional fire drill.

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