1999 年 14 巻 p. 147-162
Memphis was located at the most important place along the Nile channel, and flourished as a central city in the Dynastic period. In the Memphite area, people lived on low hilltops in cultivated land, and a necropolis was formed at the edge of the desert lead from the waterfront funeral-port. Men or commodities were prevalent on the Nile, when a building project or a religious ceremonies for local deities were held. In addition, Memphis was a city where temples, palace and military camp were placed. The eastern quarries provided them fine blocks as an architectural materials. And a lot of artifacts composed of ceramic, wooden, glazed or metal objects had been produced, transported or consumed in both Memphis and its necropolis. This is an aspect of a local economy at the Memphite area in antiquity, and it formed a great tradition. Then, the Imperial system made a new circulation. The Roman wares found at Karanis in Fayum, and at Hermopolis in Middle Egypt, show a trace of the trade network that ranged from the Mediterranean commercial center to the local market in Egypt. The Nile and canals also connected the Memphite area with the Western Delta region, where the Eastern Mediterranean market affected the distribution of the area. Thus both of the local tradition could have been succeeded in the Early Islamic period as a final aspect in late antiquity.