2005 年 21 巻 1 号 p. 121-146
Turbah al-'Adil is the mausoleum of 'Adil Abu al-Nasr Tuman Bay al-Ashraf Qa'itbay (reigned 906/1501), the 25th Sultan of the Burji Mamluk dynasty (1382-1517). Although the reign of this Sultan was only for about 100 days, this mausoleum played an important role in the early 16th century, from the late Mamluk period to the early years of Ottoman Egypt. The purpose of this article is to explore the role this mausoleum played in the transitional period, namely from the Mamluk dynasty to the Ottoman dynasty. Sultan 'Adil was killed by troops led by the next Sultan, namely Qansuh al-Ghawri, and buried in his own mausoleum, one which had been constructed by himself. This mausoleum was situated in Raydaniya, which was an important place in those days from the military point of view. It was situated in the northern suburbs of Cairo and was a base for troops, and Sultans in late Mamluk period often constructed their tombs in that vicinity. Consequently, the Turbah al-'Adil was built according to the late Mamluk tradition. Sultan Qansuh al-Ghawri frequently went to the Turbah al-'Adil during his reign (906-922/1501-1516) and tested new guns in that place. In contrast to the Sultans before him he made efforts to manufacture guns in large quantities, both because of the growth of Ottoman power and the naval power of Portugal. According to the famous historian Ibn Iyas, Sultan al-Ghawri tested new guns in the Turbah al-'Adil a total of nine times in the course of his reign, and several of these tests ended in failure. However, whenever the guns passed the test the Sultan would prepare a meal for his entourage consisting of Amirs (mamluk officers) and troops, and congratulated himself on the successful testing. Although the Sultan made efforts to strengthen his firearms his troops were defeated by the Ottoman army led by the Sultan Selim I, who entered Cairo in 1517. On his leaving Cairo however, he appointed Kha'ir Bek as the first governor of Egypt under the Ottoman Dynasty. Selim I sent his delegate with a robe of honor to Cairo, and when the delegate arrived in Cairo he stayed at the Turbah al-'Adil. Kha'ir Bek went to the mausoleum to receive him, and the delegate gave Kha'ir Bek the robe of honor at the Turbah al-'Adil. This was a ceremony for the appointment of Kha'ir Bek as the Ottoman governor of Egypt. According to Ibn Iyas, ceremonies such as the giving of the robe of honor to Kha'ir Bek at the Turbah al-'Adil, were repeated six times during the reign of both Selim I (1512-1520) and the next Sultan, namely Sulayman I (1520-1566). Hence the Turbah al-'Adil did play a significant role in the early years of Ottoman Egypt. However a question remains to be answered. Why was the Turbah al-'Adil selected as the place for such ceremonies? The answer lies in the position this mausoleum occupied in the reign of Qansuh al-Ghawri. During his rule it was a place for the testing of new guns, and so the new conqueror who belonged to the Ottoman dynasty maintained the military function of the mausoleum, and used it to strengthen his control over Egypt.