2006 Volume 22 Issue 4 Pages 503-519
Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is an effective tool for the preconcentration of trace elements and their separation from various sample constituents. Octadecyl and other alkyl-bonded silica gels are most widely used for these purposes. The fundamentals of the SPE of inorganic ions are reviewed and compared with those of related techniques (liquid-liquid extraction and reversed-phase liquid chromatography). The extraction of ions in the form of chelate compounds, inorganic salts solvated by neutral reagents, and ion-pair compounds is considered. Numerous applications of SPE to the separation and preconcentration of different elements and their species, including on-line combinations with instrumental determination techniques, are described and tabulated.