2003 Volume 76 Issue 11 Pages 2191-2195
A few novel methods were developed for the regioselective preparation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (pHBA) and its amino derivative by means of the Kolbe–Schmitt reaction. Thus, the carboxylation of tetraalkylammonium phenoxide at 125 °C under the CO2 pressure of 5.0 MPa in the presence of K2CO3 gave pHBA in a maximum yield of 56% with the regioselectivity of 97–100%. The carboxylation of potassium phenoxide (PhOK) at 230 °C under the CO2 pressure of 0.5 MPa also gave pHBA regioselectively in a 39% yield, together with unaltered phenol (61%). Under such conditions, the potassium salt of salicylic acid (SA) once formed was transformed into pHBA. Heat treatment of the dipotassium salt of 13C labeled SA indicated that the transformation occurs via two pathways, i.e., the intramolecular rearrangement of the salicylate (66%) and the decarboxylation of the salicylate followed by the recarboxylation of the resulting PhOK (34%). Furthermore, the carboxylation of cesium m-aminophenoxide and 5-amino-1-naphthoxide with CO2 gave regioselectively 4-hydroxyanthranilic and 8-amino-4-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acids, respectively, in good yields. This is a simple one-pot reaction giving these industrially useful acids with good yields.
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