1981 年 32 巻 3 号 p. 54-
In the history of European painting, landscape mostly acted an important role as the background or as the subject itself. In Florentine paintings from the middle of fifteenth century to the early sixteenth century this motif presents some important problems of style and of Iconography. We can treat these, focusing on three points ; classic or Roman traditions, topographical reality and northern influence. However, the second problem, topographical reality is most concerned with the background of fifteenth century Florentine altarpiece. The topographical reality reflects the devotion to the town by religious, secular patrons and painters themselves. Moreover, at the same time, we can find the acquirement of new significance in landscape by painter's iconographic interests. For exemple, Botticelli painted a symbolic landscape in the 'Cestello Annunciation'. It shows that landscape painting is coming to an independent genre in the true sense. However the background of the 'Martyrdom of St. Sebastian' by Pollaiuoli is the most idealistic mixture of three problems of the fifteenth century Florentine landscape. That is to say, they painted the image of Rome, the site of Saint Sebastian and the image of Florentine, the native town of Pollaiuoli. Also the landscape shows the influence of Van Eyck. Besides, as an altarpiece, the function was satisfied with the high view point in this painting.