2001 年 52 巻 1 号 p. 42-55
Rustication (Rustika or bugnato) is a stone masonry technique that creates rough surfaces with deeply sunk grooves at the joints. In Florence, this stonework had been traditional since the Middle Ages, and frequently applied to palaces, especially in the Early Renaissance. In this paper, the author addresses this architectural element, namely rustication, focusing on its interpretation and reception in 16th century Florence. At this century, the Vitruvian principles of order, which was starting to dominate the entire architectural theory, was contrary to this type of stonework. As a result, the rustication came to a crisis. In the Florentine court of the Medici dynasty, the theorists and artists like Vasari or Ammannati, tried to justify this tradition. They followed Serlio's theoretical solution which had proposed a marriage with the Tuscan order, based on their formal and functional affinity, and their ethnographic identity. In Florence, rustication was renamed "ordine rustico" or "toscano", and completely identified with the Tuscan order in the terminology. In practice, also, the new mode of unity between column and rustication was experimented. Through these attempts, rustication was legitimized, given a place of privilege, and became the "national order" of the Tuscany.