2002 年 52 巻 4 号 p. 43-56
In Jan van Eyck's Rolin Madonna, Chancellor Nicolas Rolin is depicted kneeling directly before the Virgin and Child, praying without the intercession of a patron saint. As this painting is unique in its format and iconography, there has been much research regarding its sources and possible interpretations ; however, its original placement and function have not been sufficiently investigated. This paper addresses the painting's functions from a liturgical viewpoint, based on the pontifical dispensation given to Rolin in 1434. This dispensation permitted the celebration not only of a private mass at sunrise, but also of a mass in his own home. At that time, the Divine Office was said as preparation for the Mass, and laymen practiced the Office of Matins early in the morning ; this can explain why the Office of Matins is cited in this painting. Therefore, the Rolin Madonna seems to have been intended both as a devotional image for the Office of Matins and as an altarpiece for a private mass. Nevertheless, the case of the Medici's private chapel suggests that such dispensations could also be used for a political purpose. The bold depiction of Rolin can be understood in this context, leading to the conclusion that the Rolin Madonna had both public and private functions.