2019 年 40 巻 5 号 p. 189-196
Sphingomyelin is a major lipid of the plasma membrane and is enriched in microdomains of the plasma membrane that are critical for signal transduction. However, the function of sphingomyelin in the cell membrane of osteoblasts has not been clarified. Therefore, we examined how sphingomyelin synthase 2 (SMS2) affects osteoclast differentiation by osteoblasts. We knocked down the expression of SMS2 with siRNA targeting the Sgms2 gene in mouse primary osteoblasts. The effects of SMS2 knockdown in osteoblasts were examined using polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The knockdown of SMS2 suppressed the formation of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells by co-culture of osteoblasts and bone marrow cells compared to the control. We found that receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) mRNA expression was significantly reduced by 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulation in SMS2 siRNA osteoblasts. The knockdown of SMS2 repressed the expression of retinoid-X-receptor-α (RXRα) regardless of 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulation. TRAP-positive multinucleated cell formation was significantly reduced by RXRα siRNA in osteoblasts in a co-culture system. These results suggest that SMS2 regulates osteoclast differentiation by inducing RANKL expression via RXRα.