We examined the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on chromosomal damage in two ways; induction on its own and prevention against treatment of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Chromosomal damage was evaluated by cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) in a human lymphoblastoid cell line, WIL2-NS cells. The GSE was composed of 89% proanthocyanidin with a degree of polymerization ranging from 2 to 15. GSE did not induce chromosomal damage in WIL2-NS cells at GSE concentrations up to 5 mg/l. In contrast, pretreatment with GSE dose-dependently prevented H2O2-induced chromosomal damage at an effective dose of 0.3 to 1 mg/l. A similar preventive effect of GSE was not detected in tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced damage even at 5 mg/l. In a cell free system, GSE (<5 mg/l) directly scavenged H2O2, but produced slight amounts of H2O2 at higher concentrations (>50 mg/l). These results suggest that GSE is not genotoxic, but rather has an antigenotoxic effect against H2O2 via direct scavenging action of H2O2.
2004 The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan