2012 Volume 35 Issue 12 Pages 2214-2223
The healthy drink Pairogen is mainly composed of ferrous ferric chloride water that reportedly changes the status of intracellular water from oxidative to antioxidative. Here, we investigated whether Pairogen affects host immune function in a murine model of granulomatous inflammation in response to Rhodococcus aurantiacus (R. aurantiacus) infection. Longitudinal ingestion of Pairogen markedly improved the survival of infected mice in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared to mice received water, mice that ingested 10-fold-diluted Pairogen displayed rapid bacterial elimination, decreased production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6, and high levels of IL-10 in organs during the initial phase of infection. Moreover, histological studies showed significant reduction in the number and size of granulomas as well as amelioration of oxidative stress in the livers of mice ingested 10-fold-diluted Pairogen at 14 d post-infection. These characteristics were further pronounced in first-generation (F1) mice that also ingested 10-fold-diluted Pairogen. Following stimulation with heat-killed R. aurantiacus, the production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 by macrophages from F1 mice was similar to that detected in vivo, while their gene expression levels in these cells were significantly lower than the levels in macrophages from mice received water. Heat-killed R. aurantiacus also induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 mRNA in the cells from F1 mice. Taken together, these results indicate that Pairogen contributes to the negative regulation of the immuno-inflammatory response to R. aurantiacus infection in mice by modulating the cellular redox state. Longitudinal ingestion of Pairogen further enhances the defense function in mouse progeny.