2012 Volume 35 Issue 7 Pages 1096-1104
We have studied non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) to develop anti-osteoporosis drugs for males and females. Many SARMs have been studied for their anabolic effects on bone or muscle with reduced virilizing effects in male animals. However, the tissue selectivities of these agents in female animals have not been fully evaluated. We evaluated the novel SARM S-101479 from tetrahydroquinoline libraries in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. S-101479 preferentially bound to the androgen receptor with nanomolar affinity among nuclear receptors. It increased the bone mineral density (BMD) of femurs and diminished the effects on the uterus and clitoral gland in OVX rats. We then compared the effect of S-101479 on bone with those of commercial anti-osteoporosis drugs such as alendronate, raloxifene, and teriparatide. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of combination treatments with these agents in OVX rats. After 16-week treatment, all agents significantly increased BMD, but the magnitude of bone mineral content (BMC) and/or bone size (projected bone area) were different. Alendronate, raloxifene, and teriparatide maintained BMC and bone size in this experimental dose. Only S-101479 increased BMC with bone size on single treatments. In combination treatment, S-101479 significantly increased BMC and bone size compared with single treatments of other agents. S-101479, like natural androgen, may have showed periosteal bone formation of the cortical area and indicated additive effects with commercial anti-osteoporosis drugs. These results indicate that S-101479 may be a useful anti-osteoporosis drug, particularly for patients with established severe osteoporosis.