2018 Volume 41 Issue 6 Pages 925-936
Skin inflammation is caused by excessive production of cytokines and chemokines in response to an external stimulus, such as radiation, but the mechanisms involved are not completely understood. Here, we report a novel mechanism of γ-irradiation-induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) production mediated by P2Y11 receptors in epidermal cells. After irradiation of HaCaT cells derived from human epidermal keratinocytes with 5 Gy of γ-rays (137Cs: 0.78 Gy/min), IL-6 production was unchanged at 24 h after γ-irradiation, but was increased at 48 h. IL-6 mRNA was increased at 30 h, and IL-6 production was increased at 33 h after irradiation. The production of IL-6 was sustained at least for 4 d after irradiation. P2Y11 receptor antagonist NF157 inhibited IL-6 production in irradiated cells. Treatment with ATP, a ligand of P2Y11 receptor caused IL-6 production within 24 h. ATP-induced IL-6 production was also suppressed by NF157. Extracellular ATP level was increased after irradiation. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling was involved in the production of IL-6 at the downstream of P2Y11 receptor activation. In addition, the cell cycle was arrested at the G2/M phase, and DNA repair foci were not disappeared at 48 h after γ-irradiation. The protein level of histone methylation enzyme G9a, which inhibits IL-6 production, was decreased after γ-irradiation. In conclusion, we suggest that γ-irradiation induces sustained IL-6 production in HaCaT cells from 33 h after irradiation, which is mediated through P2Y11 receptor-p38 MAPK-NF-κB signaling pathway and G9a degradation. This is a novel mechanism of cytokine production in γ-irradiated cells.