2021 Volume 44 Issue 2 Pages 259-265
Nafamostat mesilate (NFM) is used as an anticoagulant during hemodialysis in patients who have had complications due to hemorrhages. The formation of precipitates, which could lead to the interruption of hemodialysis has been reported when NFM is infused into blood during hemodialysis. We report herein on an examination of possible factors that could cause this. The effects of electrolytes such as phosphates, citrates or succinates on the formation of precipitates were examined by mixing NFM with aqueous solutions or plasma that contained these electrolytes. The formation of precipitates was observed in all electrolyte solutions when higher concentrations of NFM were mixed at around physiological pH. In the case of plasma, precipitates were observed when solutions containing higher concentrations of NFM were mixed with plasma that contained phosphate and citrate. In addition, the formation of precipitates under dynamic conditions where NFM was infused into flowing electrolyte solutions was also evaluated. The data suggested that such precipitates might be formed and disrupt the blood flow and/or an NFM infusion when NFM is infused into blood flowing in the hemodialysis circuit. The findings presented herein suggest the serum levels of anionic electrolytes (e.g., phosphate), the type of excipients present in pharmaceutical products (e.g., succinic acid or citric acid), the concentration of NFM used for the infusion or the rates of NFM infusion and blood flow are all factors that could affect precipitate formation during NFM infusions for hemodialysis.