Alamandine is a new member of the angiotensin family. Here, we studied the mRNA and protein expression of cardiac angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) ACE2 (in the chronic phase of a rat model of two-kidney, one-clip hypertension (2KIC) , and the effects of 2-week alamandine infusion on blood pressure, cardiac indices, and ACE2 mRNA and protein expression in the hearts. The rats were subjected to to sham-operation or placement of plexiglass clips around the left renal artery. Alamandine, at a dose of 600 µg/kg/day, was administered for two weeks via an osmotic mini-pump. At 18 weeks, after induction of hypertension, blood pressure and cardiac indices of contractility were measured using a Powerlab Physiograph system. The ACE2 mRNA and protein levels were determined using real time-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. In the hypertensive rats, alamandine caused a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (P<0.001), diastolic blood pressure (P<0.001), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (P<0.001) and, left ventricular systolic pressure (P<0.001) and increase in the maximum rate of pressure change in the left ventricle (dP/dt (max)) (P<0.05). Also, the ACE2 mRNA expression in the heart increased in the hypertensive rats compared to the normotensive rats (P<0.05), and alamandine restored this to normal values, although these changes were only seen at the mRNA and not the protein level. Histological analysis of cardiac tissue confirmed that alamandine decreased cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy in 2KIC hypertensive rats. Our results indicate that alamandine, which acts as a depressor arm of the renin-angiotensin system, could be developed for treating hypertension.