1995 年 18 巻 2 号 p. 315-320
The population pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin (LVFX), the l-enantiomer of ofloxacin, were studied in 522 subjects, including normal subjects and patients with infectious diseases. Altogether, 1572 LVFX serum concentrations were obtained following a single oral administration during clinical trials. The influences of renal function, age, meals and concurrent durg administration on the pharmacokineti■ parameters of LVFX were examined by the likelihood ratio test using a nonlinear mixed-effect model (NONMEM). In patients with renal insufficiency, the total body clearance (CL) of LVFX was related to creatinine clearance (Ccr) and body weight (WT), as expressed by CL=0.0836 Ccr+0.013 WT. The CL with normal renal function was 0.178 (l/h/kg). The apparent volume of distribution (Vd) was calculated to be 1.46 (l/kg). The elderly subjects, aged 65 years old or over, exhibited, on average, a 32% reduction in CL and 6% greater Vd. LVFX was rapidly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, but the concurrent administration of antacids (magnesium, aluminum, etc.) decreased the bioavailability of LVFX by 15-52%. The recommended dose of LVFX was decided on the basis of current pharmacokinetic information and the minimum inhibitory concentrations. Population pharmacokinetic parameters are also useful for the individualization of a dosage regimen by means of the Bayesian forecasting method.