This study assessed the ability of physical education (PE) teachers and university students (US) undertaking a PE major to judge the safety or danger involved with some judo movements. The subjects were 285 US (96 males, 189 females) aiming to become PE teachers, and 107 school PE teachers (85 males, 22 females). The participants were divided into three groups: teachers with judo experience (TJ); teachers without judo experience (TN); and US. All the subjects were shown a video of the same 18 judo movements, and were then asked if they considered the movements to be safe or dangerous. If they believed the movements were potentially dangerous, they were asked to identify the body parts that could possibly be injured. The average scores for safety, danger, and potentially injured body parts were calculated for each group. The rate of correct answers was also calculated for each movement. The scores in each group and the rates of correct answers in each movement were compared among the three groups.
The findings for recognizing safe situations were as follows:
1)The TN group recognized greater danger with nage-waza to the front than did the TJ group.
2)The US group recognized greater danger with nage-waza to the front and back than did the TJ and TN groups.
3)The US group recognized greater danger with katame-waza than did the TJ and TN groups.
The findings for recognizing dangerous situations were as follows:
4)The TJ group recognized greater danger with the lower posture of the thrower (tori) than did the TN and US groups.
5)The TJ group recognized the greater danger of the receiver (uke) putting their hand to the floor than did the TN and US groups.
6)All three groups recognized the danger with the tori putting their head to the floor; however, the TN and US groups did not identify possible injuries to the head or neck.
7)With regard to possible damage to the spinal column in katame-waza, the TJ and TN groups recognized greater potential danger than did the US group. The US group did not identify possible injuries to the neck.