2010 Volume 65 Issue 10 Pages 769-776
Lattice defects often deteriorate properties of inorganic materials and their essential nature does not appear. In ferroelectrics, a small amount of defects plays an important role in polarization switching, but defects with a relatively high density lead to various problems. Recently, Bi-based perovskite ferroelectrics have attracted much attention as a Pd-free material from the environmental and economical points of view. However, high-quality single crystals of Bi-based ferroelectrics have not been obtained over the past 60 years because of the defect-related problems, and their fundamental properties are shrouded in a veil. In the present article, the crystal growth technique under high oxygen pressure we have developed is shown to be effective for growing high-quality Bi-based ferroelectric single crystals. In addition, the background to the development is briefly introduced.