2012 Volume 67 Issue 9 Pages 640-644
Fully ionized plasmas seen in space and laboratory are rarefied, and local thermodynamical equilibrium cannot be assumed unlike conventional fluids, since particles' mean free path is longer than the typical spatial scale length. Therefore they require a theoretical framework such as Boltzmann equation for solving velocity distribution function at each position. In such systems turbulence proceeds in phase space, and it is important to understand the creation mechanism of velocity space structures. This manuscript summarizes recent developments of phase-space turbulence of electrostatic, two-dimensional fluctuations in magnetized plasmas.