地理科学
Online ISSN : 2432-096X
Print ISSN : 0286-4886
ISSN-L : 0286-4886
福島県久山町における村落社会の変容と入会林野の機能
八百 俊介
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ジャーナル フリー

1988 年 43 巻 1 号 p. 51-62

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The purpose of this paper is to clarify the changing aspects of rural community and the present significance of common forest in Japanese suburban village. Before the Second World War, Common forest played an important role in producing firewood and manure, and functioned as a tie of the Japanese village community. Although Central Government has tried to abolish the common forest since the Meiji era, the common forest survived in no small quantities. But today villages don't rely on the common forest for getting fuel and fertilizer, so most of common forest has become valueless. But some remain valuable as a result of the recorgnization of the ownership and use. Rural community in Suburban area has been changed rapidly under the effect of urbanization, especially by the coming of non farming household and the increase of part-time farm-household. Such compositional changes of residents in rural community have brought decrease of "Michibusin" (cooperative maintenance works of village roads) and "Yoriai" (the villagers' periodical meetings on the community matters). Hisayama-cho is a suburban village which is located in Fukuoka metropolitan area. Although part time farm household has increased, "Michibusin" and "Yoriai" continue and are hold more frequently than other nearby villages. In 1970 the authority of Hisayama established City Planning Area all over the town and 96. 7% of its area was designated as Urbanization Control Zone. So urban land use has been restricted strictly and only two housing estates have been developed untill now. There are a small number of non-farm family newly coming to Hisayama-cho. City planning Area controls the number of new comers which is supposed to weaken the tie of village community. Therefore it can be said that City Planning Area keeps unity of the village community in Hisayama. The Author made a questionnaire survey to residents in two communities which have common forest. He analysed the attitude of residents toward the village community. The results are as follows; 1. In Hisayama, native residents voluntarilly follow the traditions and customs of the village community. On the other hand, the longer the newcomers live, the more cooperatively they come to follow the customs of the village community, if they remain as minority in the community. 2. Most of residents are concerned with the common forest when the benefits from it are spent for the community. Those who realize the significance of the common forest keep a strong sense of belonging to the community. So it can be said that the common forest still functions, in part, as a tie of the village. 3. On the other hand, the unity of the village community influences the continuance of the common forests and the use of benefits from them. We can find an interaction between the common forest and the village community.

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