地理科学
Online ISSN : 2432-096X
Print ISSN : 0286-4886
ISSN-L : 0286-4886
アメリカにおける都市交通地理学の動向 : 都市構造と交通様式の関係をめぐって
小長谷 一之
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ジャーナル フリー

1990 年 45 巻 4 号 p. 234-246

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Formerly, I have pointed out that recent developmental stages of Geography of Urban Transportation can be classified into three fields (Konagaya, 1990), focusing on the relationships between urban structure and three transport elements (mode, establishment, flow) (Fig. 1). Here I reexamined the relationship between urban structure and transport mode, because there are a few but important studies in recent research works. Adams (1970), Kirby and Lambert (1985), Muller (1981, 1982) have studied the influence of transport mode on the structure of urban quarter. Then they have found that prevailing transport mode have changed the structure of urban quarter. So urban quarter can be classified according to four different prevailing transport modes (Fig. 2). They termed four periods that these prevailing transport modes were dominant as 'Urban transport eras'. I have explained these topics in chapter II. Most impotant mode transformation in America was that of transit to auto in 1930's and 1940's (from II Urban transport era to III Urban transport era). Snell (1974), Whitt (1982), Yago (1984) have confirmed the fact that this transfomation was due to 'The Great Transportation Conspiracy's by automobile companies, which had ultimately made American cities into large energy consumers. I have traced this tendency in chapter III. The history of urban transportation policy, planning and study after the World War II are divided into three periods (Fig. 3): In the first period, highway investment is the largest objective, and large scale aggregate analyses are developed. In the second, transit planning revives, and small scale disaggregate analyses are developed. In the third, transit planning tends to be reduced.

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