2009 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 211-227
After 1990s, globalization and relaxation of regulations in labor market have changed working conditions in Japan. The revision to the Law for dispatch workers and the Law for Equal Employment Opportunity of Men and Women had increase part-time or non-permanent workers. Especially, female work turned to cheep part-time jobs or unstable dispatched jobs. Furthermore, many female workers must be imposed long working hours in order to make enough money to survive. In this ways, the ratio of female workers is increasing in Japan. This means that feminization in labor market has progressed in Japan. The trend toward service economy need more cheep female part-time workers in service sector. Married women are convenient as flexible workforce for employers or business owners. Many married women have started working in service sector according to proceeding service economy. However it places a burden on married women, because they must spend much time on working and also housework and nursing their children. This study tries to analyze the work and life of women's care workers in order to clarify the feminization of personal service sector. Care service is the most feminized sector in labor market in step with the aging of the population. Most of labor force is women's part-time worker. That is why this service needs the experience of nursing work and flexible work. Especially, elderly care services depend above all on married women. And employers in care service want to save the cost by hiring part-timers. Usually care service is assembled with short segments of part-timers works. In rural regions, aging of population is serious problems and the demand of elderly care service is increasing. However, their work is extremely flexible. Home visiting nursing service and personal care service in facility need specific service time pattern, for example helping with eating. In another case, care service women work in two specific days per week. And in another case, care service women work in two or three hours in everyday. Though, this flexibility is adequate for married women. They must perform house-work and their children's care. They don't want to get full-time job, because they think it is difficult to satisfy both of work and housework. However there is little assistance by their husband. In rural regions, married women tend to depend homework and childcare on their parents, because there are many three-generation families.