2016 Volume 80 Issue 12 Pages 2482-2488
Background:The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of depression assessed by the 9-item test from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the effect of depression on adverse cardiovascular outcomes in Japanese outpatients with cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Methods and Results:This prospective observational study enrolled 1,453 outpatients with CVD (mean age 67±13 years; 31.3% female; 32.6% ischemic heart disease). Depression was defined as a PHQ-9 score ≥10. The main composite outcome was the time to death from any cause or a cardiovascular event. 81 patients (5.6%) were diagnosed with depression (PHQ-9 ≥10). NYHA class III, living alone, and unemployment were independently associated with depression. During an average follow-up of 584±80 days, the main outcome occurred in 85 patients (5.8%). There was a higher incidence of the main outcome in patients with depression than in those without depression (P<0.001). Depression was an independent predictor of the primary outcome (hazard ratio 4.64, 95% confidence interval 2.24–9.09, P<0.001).
Conclusions:Depression assessed by the PHQ-9 was found in 5.6% of Japanese outpatients with CVD and was an important risk factor for adverse outcomes. (UMIN-CTR No. UMIN 000023514) (Circ J 2016; 80: 2482–2488)