Background:The cardiovascular prognosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has been shown to be similar to that of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). It is unknown which factors predict cardiovascular outcome in HFpEF. We tested the hypothesis that the abnormal pattern of circadian blood pressure (BP) rhythm known as the riser BP pattern is associated with adverse outcomes in HFpEF.
Methods and Results:We performed a prospective, observational cohort study of hospitalized HF patients who underwent ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). Five hundred and sixteen hospitalized HF patients (age, 69±13 years; male, n=321 [62%]; female, n=195 [38%]) were followed up for a median 20.9 months. The composite outcome consisting of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events was observed in 220 patients. On Kaplan-Meier analysis, the riser BP pattern subgroup had a significantly higher incidence of the composite outcome than the other subgroups of HFpEF patients (HR, 3.01; 95% CI: 1.54–6.08, P<0.01), but not the HFrEF patients.
Conclusions:The riser BP pattern was found to be a novel predictor of cardiovascular outcome in HFpEF patients.