Article ID: CJ-19-0114
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) is an inflammatory phenomenon that leads to structural abnormality in the vascular lumen due to the formation of atheroma by the deposition of lipid particles and inflammatory cytokines. There is a close interaction between innate immune cells (neutrophils, monocyte, macrophages, dendritic cells) and adaptive immune cells (T and B lymphocytes) in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. According to novel insights into the role of adaptive immunity in atherosclerosis, the activation of CD4+T cells in response to oxidized low-density lipoprotein-antigen initiates the formation and facilitates the propagation of atheroma, whereas CD8+T cells cause the rupture of a developed atheroma by their cytotoxic nature. Peripheral CD4+and CD8+T-cell counts were altered in patients with other cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, on evaluation of the feasibility of immune cells as a diagnostic tool, the blood CD4+(helper), CD8+(cytotoxic), and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+(regulatory) T cells and the ratio of CD4 to CD8 cells hold promise as biomarkers of coronary artery disease and their subtypes. T cells also could be a therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases. The goal of this review was therefore to summarize the available information regarding immune disorders in ACVD with a special focus on the clinical implications of circulating T-cell subsets as biomarkers.