2006 Volume 54 Issue 10 Pages 1351-1364
Using the unique character of the chiral Pd complexes 1 and 2, highly efficient catalytic asymmetric reactions have been developed. In contrast to conventional Pd(0)-catalyzed reactions, these complexes function as an acid-base catalyst. Thus active methine and methylene compounds were activated to form chiral palladium enolates, which underwent enantioselective carbon–carbon bond-forming reactions such as Michael reaction and Mannich-type reaction with up to 99% ee. Interestingly, these palladium enolates acted cooperatively with a strong protic acid, formed concomitantly during the formation of the enolates to activate electrophiles, thereby promoting the C–C bond-forming reaction. This palladium enolate chemistry was also applicable to electrophilic enantioselective fluorination reactions, and various carbonyl compounds including β-ketoesters, β-ketophosphonates, tert-butoxycarbonyl lactone/lactams, cyanoesters, and oxindole derivatives could be fluorinated in a highly enantioselective manner (up to 99% ee). Using this method, the catalytic enantioselective synthesis of BMS-204352, a promising anti-stroke agent, was achieved. In addition, the direct enantioselective conjugate addition of aromatic and aliphatic amines to α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound was successfully demonstrated. In this reaction, combined use of the Pd complex 2 having basic character and the amine salt was the key to success, allowing controlled generation of the nucleophilic free amine. This aza-Michael reaction was successfully applied to asymmetric synthesis of the CETP inhibitor torcetrapib.