放送教育研究
Online ISSN : 2433-0892
Print ISSN : 0386-3204
ISSN-L : 0386-3204
マス・メディア報道源への接触量および信頼性と準統計能力に関する実証的研究
海後 宗男
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ジャーナル オープンアクセス

1994 年 19 巻 p. 57-72

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1. The Background This study is based the theories involved in the social construction of reality and the quasi-statistical sense by mass media. Past studies found that people who are exposed to television construct a social reality based on the content of television. Another study found that the amount of television exposure and social reality occured for those who trusted television to be an accurate representation of actual life, and not for those who were skeptical of television. News reports which highlight a specific category of life conducts the social construction of reality through the mass media. News reports aregenerally considered to be an accurate representation of actual life, however, due to the process in reporting news, the objective reality of news is converted into a social reality, therefore, mass media can be inferred to contribute to the social construction of reality among individuals. A possible type of social reality constructed through mass media news can be found in the theory of Spiral of Silence. In this theory, quasi-statistical sense is a factor that is presumed to occur. This ability is suggested to be conducted through the mass media. 2. Purpose A primary objective of this study is to clarify the relationship of mass media news source exposure and credibility leading to a quasi-statistical sense. The independent variables, mass media news source exposure and news source credibility were configured to explain the assessment of distribution of opinion. The dependent variable, quasistatistical sense is configured under the topic of socieconomic conflicts between the U.S. and Japan. With this objective, the following hypothesis was formulated. Hypothesis:Heavy exposure and high source credibility to mass media news sources lead to a higher quasi-statistical sense concerning the mass media news content. 3. Method 570 university freshman and sophomores were randomly selected from three universities in the vicinity of Tokyo in order to homogenize age and other demographical factors. 260 reponses were collected and after screening incomplete results, the resultant number was 244. The questionnaire method was used to gather the date. The questionnaires were administered at three univirsities during the period of April 6 to April 15, 1992. The independent variable of television news source exposure is measured through news program selection and a conversion of each program into minutes. Newspaper exposure is measured through a time scale that is divided every ten minutes. The Gaziano-McGrath Factors were utilized for the items of news source credibility. This item is measured through a live point scale. The items for measuring the assessment of distribution of opinion are based according to the joint survey by NHK and ABC "50th Anniversary of The War between Japan and the United States" in The NHK Monthly Peport on Broadcast Research (1992) For analyzing the data, correlation and multiple regression between the independent and dependent variables was used. 4. Results and Discussion A primary objective of this study was to clarify the relationship of mass media news source exposure and credibility leading to a high quasi-statistical sense. The hypothesis: Heavy exposure and high source credibility to mass media news sources lead to a higher quasi-statistical sense concerning the mass media news content, was supported. Television news source exposure and credibility were highly significant factors leading to quasi-statistical sense. Even though the selected sample was deficient in subjects with heavy exposure to newspaper sources, one can still suggest that the hypothesis can be significantly supported, especialy concerning mass media news source credibility. From the results of this study, one can infer that mass media news source exposure and credibiity are both factors that can be considered as important elements for assessment of opinion

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© 1994 日本教育メディア学会
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