2007 年 81 巻 p. 25-44
The purpose of this paper is to grasp how science is taught in Japanese junior high schools, and to show the influences of teaching methods on academic achievement and differences between social classes, using the data of TIMSS2003.
It is found that science lessons in junior high schools are taught using four teaching methods: the experiment-investigation method, society-daily life method,homework-examination method, and hearing-practice method, as well as combinations of these methods. They are not trade-offs, but are linked to one another. In this paper, the author emphasizes the following three points regarding the influence of these four teaching methods.
Firstly, looking at two of the “Traditional Views on Academic Achievement,” the hearing-practice method tends to improve academic achievement, while the homework-examination method may degrade it. Thus, a return to the “Tradi tional Views on Academic Achievement” could potentially lead to an unintended further decline in academic achievement. Secondly, the society-daily life method, which is based on the “New Views on Academic Achievement,” may promote increased differences of academic achievement between social classes, but does not bring about a decline of academic achievement. Thirdly, an addi tional effect takes place on academic achievement when the hearing-practice method and society-daily life method are combined.
Based on these findings, the author suggests that we should not regard “New Views on Academic Achievement” and “Traditional Views on Academic Achievement” as being in binary opposition. Rather, we should discover effective teaching methods (and a combination of them) among many kinds of “new” and “traditional” teaching methods.