1965 年 20 巻 p. 156-173,en199
(1) This paper intends to numerically explain the formation and distribution of engineering manpower in Japan, at the first stage of her industrialization ; 1870-1900.
(2) In this paper, only the university-graduated engineers are considered, and as to the larger group of technicians they are not included in the object of this paper.
(3) Formation: For the developing countries that are aiming rapid industrialization, one of the most important problems is to obtain the sufficient engineering manpower supply. Concerning the supply, there are various routes, and the selection about the routes decides the speed of industrialization. At the start of her industrialization, Japan, like other developing nations had to depend heavily on the emplayment of foreign engineers to meet the urgent needs. After two decades of educational efforts, the indigenous engineers, who were graduated from the Imperial University of Tokyo, became avairable for her manpower needs.
(4) Distribution: These indigenous engineers were supplied mainly to the following three sections ; institutes of higher learning, government, and university. In the first stage of industrialzation, most engineers were supplied to the central government, since the government carried the most important and dominant role in economy. As to the types of engineers, civil engineers commanded the majority, who mainly engaged in the construction of the social overhead capital.
(5) Mobility: In this period, the most frequent movement of engineers occurred between the government and the industry. Toward the end of the nineteent century, however, the mobility gradually slowed down, and most engineers bagan to lead all their professional life in the first job in which they enterd after graduation.