1965 年 20 巻 p. 99-112,en202
One of the factors. that checks the realization of meritocracy in Japan is to attach too much importance to a school career. A person with an inferior educational career, that is, no higher education or education in less famous institution, in most cases, has to give up his effort or ambition. As school careers are acquired through the rigid entrance examination, to select candidates through their school careers is, in a sence, rational. But, if one's ability continues to be evalated fixedly through his life by his educational background, school careers function rather as ascription than as achievement, for one's ability itself is changeable and the abilities required at school are not necessarily the abilities required in one's place of work.
This report consists of two parts; One is to analyse the modification process of one's level of aspiration caused by his educational background. The other is to trace school records from primary school to high school.
The study was done in 1964, sending questionnaires to 457 graduates of a high school in Hiroshima City. At the same time, we examined the school records of 1378 graduates of the same high school and 85 graduates of a high school in Usa City.
The results of the two studies are as follows. First, the level of aspirations of those who entered first class universities are much higher than those who entered the other universities, though in this case, there was no difference between the school records of the two groups in high school. Secondly, even within twelve years until graduation of high school, school records are unexpectedly changeable.