1967 年 22 巻 p. 70-88,en212
In a rapidly changing industrial society, the “natural process” of education in the family is no longer adequate. It has been replaced by a more formalized institution-school system. With the expansion and upgrading of education, more and more children are segregated over longer span of time from adult society. This will naturally result in the emergence of adolescent subculture different from adult culture.
In a traditional thinking, the problem of education was life-adjustment versus academic emphasis. It means the differentiation of humanly oriented and academically oriented learning. In these days, however, the differentiation takes place in terms of achievement, and the salient characteristic of Japanese society reinforces it. In Japan, the most highly evaluated element in occupational and status system is educational attainment (Gakureki). The graduates of the first class colleges have better chance for the higher occupational and social status than the others.
Such a ranking natually leads to a competition for the first class colleges. And it is evident that a high school of academically oriented climate will have advantage for those colleges. Consequently, the competition for higher status moves into the phase of the high school. Those who have entered the first class high schools may have better chance for first class colleges than those having entered the lower high schools, who may have some chances only for the colleges of lower level or none.
Such situation will bring the def ferentiation of behavior patterns and value-attitudes among high school students, which is our working hypothesis. We selected seven high schools according to academic grade for our purpose, and made research by questionnaire method.
The resust verified our hypothesis in some degree.
In a word, students are differentiated in three directions: academic, adaptive and hedonistic. Characteristics of students suTveyed can be stated typologically as follows:
(1) Students in the high school of the highest rank.
inner-directed type. autonomous. academically oriented.
(2) Students in the high school of the second highest rank.
most adaptive to adult norms.
(3) Students in the high school of middle rank:
some submissive and some defiant.
feel dilemma between adult control and hedonistic need.
(4) Students in the high school of lowest rank:
regressive or somewhat delinquent. withdrawal from adult norms focussing on sex-interest and hedonism.