1982 年 37 巻 p. 118-128,en240
This paper attempts to reexamine the “conservative” character of Durkheim's sociological thought of education.
So far, it has been said that Durkheim's main consideration is the analysis of “order” rather than “change”. He has often been criticized in the point that he considered only one side of the interaction between education and society, because he made much of the conservative function of education contributing to social integration.
However, if we look back upon the historical context of the French society in those days and Durkheim's “personal reality” about human conditions, we realize that his thought of education contained innovational elements to a great extent. For him, “moral education” at schools was the only clue to overcome the vicious circle of pathological state of society. Furthermore, such a viewpoint was the product of Durkheim's internal tension between “factual order” and “normative order”.
Neverthless, his idealistic attitude, which expected the innovational function of education as “a person” living in the Third Republic, resulted in bringing about a fundamental dilemma with his role of positivistic “sociologist”. Therefore, the “conservative” character of Durkheim's thought of education must be understood on the basis of the “positivist-idealist” dilemma in the critical period.