2004 年 74 巻 p. 129-147
The aim of this paper is to show that commercial parenting magazines incontemporary Japanese society posses the potential for creating differentiationamong the agents of parenting and the distribution of discourses on parenting, based on the theory on the structuring of pedagogic discourse elaborated by Basil Bernstein.
The objects for analysis in this paper are articles in major commercialmagazines on parenting. In the 1970s, two major magazines, Baby-Age andWatashi no Akachan appeared, mainly based on academic discourse. The twomajor magazines gained their readership from a specific stratum that identifiedthemselves with the discourses representing modernised parenting agents andpractices. They greatly increased their circulation into the 1990s.
However, after the 1990s, under the influence of a new type of magazines, the two magazines that had held a major status in the market lost ground to anew type of magazine represented by Hiyoko Club. The articles in the new typeof magazine used the discourses of parenting agents in everyday life.
Why did this transformation of discourses in parenting magazines occur? One of the factors behind the change was the rapid expansion of women goingon to higher education since the 1960s. With the increase of access to academicdiscourses among women, in Bernstein's words, the pedagogic device was transformed.Through the change in power relationships between social groups, theboundary between sacred knowledge and profane (distributive rules) shifted, andthe parenting magazine as fields of pedagogic recontextualizing gained room forrelocating the local voices of parenting agents (recontextualizing rules). Hence, we find parenting practices based on horizontal social relationships and discoursesthat emphasize sympathy among parenting agents (evaluative rules).
Parenting magazines after the 1990s turned into new devices for differentiationamong parenting agents and the distribution of discourses. Parentingmagazines as new devices had some potential: Firstly, by creating the horizontaland synchronic social relationships between parenting agents. Secondly, throughthe regulation of access from parenting agents who had an orientation towardmeanings which can be constructed with elaborated codes.