2004 Volume 75 Pages 85-104
Organizations of clinical psychologist were organized on two occasions in Japan at the initiative of professional societies. The move toward professionalization in the 1960s used a strategy which gave priority to the acquisition of specialist status and autonomy than to obtaining a state-granted qualification. As a result, it failed to obtain the support of professionals working in the clinical field. However, in the 1970s, the whole clinical mental occupation reached consensus on the need to promote specialist status, from a sense of crisis brought about by the unwillingness of the Ministry of Health and Welfare and doctors to create a qualification. In the second professionalization in the 1980s, calls were made for the advancement of specialist status and the establishment of a training system. Thanks to a strategy of professionalization aimed at developing an educational field, it came to attain “miraculous” growth.
This professionalization of clinical psychologists was based on the leadership of professional societies, which developed specialist attributes for the cultivation of a “science-profession” core based on a “dual strategy”, to gain professional status. The clinical psychologists used a dual strategy toward the Ministry of Health and Welfare and the Ministry of Education, expanded the market autonomously and produced a great deal of “science-profession.” However, it can be said that the professional society-led model has the danger of following the route of very unstable professionalization, which can be easily influenced of many domains although it has the potential for expanding new markets and the development of an autonomous training system.