2006 年 79 巻 p. 67-84
One premise of studies on the Japanese university participation rate is that there have been three stages: expansion, stagnation, and re-expansion. A second premise is the prefecture is used as the unit to determine whether students have moved upon entrance to university. However, the prefecture as a measurement unit does not always coincide with the zone from which students can attend university from home, or “the hometown.” Therefore, using data from the “Student Life Survey” of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, this study directly measures the ratio of members of the 18-yearold cohort who entered university from home, and the ratio of those living away from home (1968-1998). In this paper, the former is called the university participation rate from home, and the latter the university participation rate from away from home. The finding is that for girls, the university participation rate from home has risen fairly consistently. This is important knowledge for the first premise of studies on the university participation rate. It appears that the reason why preceding studies have not given a successful explanation of the university participation rate of girls based on economic variables, whereas that of boys has been successfully explained, is because the cost of movement has not been considered. Therefore, this study confirms the effect of the cost of movement, and clarifies the difference of the determining factors of the university participation rate from home according to gender or university location. Furthermore, this study confirms a difference between girls and boys for each economic variable effect including the movement cost effect aftercontrolling for factors peculiar to university location.
The results are that the limiting conditions are more sensitive in large cities than in rural areas, and that girls are more sensitive to the limiting conditions than boys when controlling for the factor peculiar to the area. This suggests the reproduction of the composition where “girls remain in the local area, and boys move out.”