2002 Volume 70 Issue 7 Pages 511-514
This paper describes the phosphorus distribution and content in the electroless nickel films at both the initial stages and following steady state of deposition conditions. From the results of EPMA, GDOES and AES measurements, it was found that phosphorus contents in the deposited films at the initial stages indicate higher values than the following steady state deposition. The highest phosphorus content in the films was obtained from the citric acid bath among the tested complexing agents. The P rich layer around 20 to 40 nm in thickness calculating by the AES sputtering rate is produced at the initial stages of deposition and this layer is always stayed at the surface of the deposited film along with the advancement of deposition reaction.