Impaired secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been suggested to contribute to the deficient incretin effect in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Recent studies, however, have not always supported this notion. Since Japanese patients with T2DM usually have severe impairment in the earlyphase of insulin secretion, the measurement of incretin secretions in Japanese T2DM patients would be useful for assessing the association between incretin levels and insulin secretion. We conducted an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g) (OGTT) and meal tolerance test (480 kcal) (MTT) for subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n=12), subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n=7), and T2DM patients (n=21). The tests were carried out over 120-min study periods on separate occasions. Intact GLP-1, GIP, and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-IV were measured by ELISA. T2DM exhibited an impaired early phase of insulin secretion and a reduction in glucagon suppression. There were no significant differences in GLP-1 or GIP levels at each sampling time among NGT, IGT, and T2DM after the ingestions; hence the incremental areas under the curve (IAUC) for the three groups were quite similar. The levels of DPP-IV, a limiting enzyme for the degradation of incretins, were comparable among the three groups. The GLP-1-IAUC was not correlated with IAUCs of insulin, C-peptide, or glucagon determined by the OGTT or the MTT. We concluded that intact GLP-1 levels are comparable between non-diabetics and T2DM, suggesting that impaired insulin secretion in Japanese T2DM is not attributable to defect in GLP-1 secretion.
The Japan Endocrine Society