2015 Volume 62 Issue 2 Pages 195-200
Central diabetes insipidus (CDI), which is characterized by polyuria and polydipsia, is caused by a deficiency of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP). While CDI is treated with desmopressin, an analogue of AVP, the intranasal formulation is inconvenient and CDI patients reportedly prefer the oral formulation to the intranasal one. In Japan, intranasal desmopressin had been the only formulation for the treatment of CDI until 2012, when the desmopressin orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) was approved for treatment. In this study we analyzed 26 patients with CDI in whom intranasal desmopressin was switched to desmopressin ODT. The mean daily dose of intranasal desmopressin was 10 ± 8 μg/day, and that of desmopressin ODT was 142 ± 59 μg/day. The mean serum sodium levels were 140 ± 5 mmol/L and 140 ± 3 mmol/L with intranasal desmopressin and desmopressin ODT, respectively, and there were no significant differences between these values. The frequency of hyponatremia (<135 mmol/L) with intranasal desmopressin was 11.7% and that with desmopressin ODT was 7.6%, while the frequency of hyponatremia (<130 mmol/L) with intranasal desmopressin was 4.2% and that with desmopressin ODT was 1.3%. Statistical analyses revealed that incidence of hyponatremia was significantly decreased after the switch to desmopressin ODT. Thus, it is suggested that water balance is better controlled with desmopressin ODT than with intranasal desmopressin in patients with CDI.