2018 Volume 65 Issue 11 Pages 1083-1092
Hypouricemia is a high-risk factor of exercise-induced acute kidney injury (EIAKI) probably through a lack of an antioxidant effect of uric acid. Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of uric acid from hypoxanthine and xanthine, leading to an increase in superoxide and reactive oxygen species. Activation of XOR has been proposed to promote oxidative stress-related tissue injury. We measured plasma XOR activity by a sensitive and accurate assay using a combination of liquid chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in subjects with relatively low levels of uric acid (≤4.0 mg/dL) who were recruited from 627 subjects (male/female: 292/335) in the Tanno-Sobetsu Study, a population-based cohort. The numbers of subjects with uric acid ≤4.0 mg/dL, ≤3.0 mg/dL and ≤2.0 mg/dL were 72 (11.5%, male/female: 5/67), 13 (2.1%, all females) and 2 (0.3%, both females), respectively. Plasma XOR activities in 5 male subjects were below the median value of the 292 male subjects. In 12 (17.9%) of the 67 female subjects with uric acid ≤4.0 mg/dL, plasma XOR activities were above the upper quartile value of the 335 female subjects. Eleven of the 12 female subjects with high plasma XOR activity and a low uric acid level had liver dysfunction and/or insulin resistance. In conclusion, unexpected high plasma XOR activities were found in some female subjects with relatively low levels of uric acid. Measurement of plasma XOR activity may help to identify hypouricemic patients with a high risk for EIAKI.