Pre-emptive evacuation orders following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) in March 2011 and subsequent regulatory limits regarding contaminated food, milk, and water minimized the external and internal radiation exposure doses of nearby residents. However, with regard to implementation of iodine thyroid blocking (ITB), residents were confused because no information on the matter was released by the central and/or local governments. Based on lessons learned from the FDNPS accident, many countries have revised their guidelines regarding ITB during nuclear disasters. To adequately revise such guidelines and ensure effective ITB implementation during a nuclear disaster, however, residents’ perceptions of ITB must be clarified. In this study, the perception of risks associated with ITB was investigated in mothers residing near the Sendai Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Of the 520 mothers surveyed, 467 (89.8%) expressed anxiety regarding the administration of potassium iodine (KI) to their children. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the mothers’ anxiety regarding the administration of KI to their children was positively correlated with their wish to consult an expert about KI and their hesitation to let their children eat foods produced in Fukushima, and negatively correlated with having confidence about administering KI to their children. Careful communication of potential risks to mothers residing near nuclear power plants is thus critical for implementing effective ITB in children.