2019 年 41 巻 1 号 p. 1-11
This study examined the effects of a Thinking af ter Instruction (TAI) approach that integrates teachers’ direct instruction and students’ discovery learning with metacognitive activities. Fif ty-six 8th-grade students taking a f ive-day science class were assigned to one of three groups: a TAI group or two control groups (CG1 or CG2). TAI students (a) received direct instruction from the teacher on the basic contents, (b) explained in pairs their understanding of what teachers had instructed them, (c) attempted to solve problems that deepened their comprehension of the basic contents, and (d) described what they understood and did not understand. CG1 students were not asked to check their comprehension, but instead engaged for a longer time in the deepening comprehension task. CG2 students tried the basic tasks before receiving direct instruction, but they did not work on comprehension checking and self-evaluation (phases b and d). The results demonstrate that TAI students performed better on post-tests of basic contents and deepening comprehension tasks than the other two groups. They also performed better on a transfer test than CG2 students.