2020 Volume 42 Issue 1 Pages 39-50
In this study, we provided students with the question, “Why can the use of a convex lens create an image?” Students were taught “to use concrete examples, analogies, and illustrations in their explanation as needed” and were asked to write sentences for those who were not well-versed in the teaching target who fell into four groups: 1) their juniors by one year; 2) peers in the same grade with little understanding of the subject; 3) their seniors by one year; or 4) the student him/herself. We then analyzed whether using simple explanations or explanations with supplemental information were used in their answers, and whether knowledge was acquired accurately by assuming the teaching target. The following results were revealed: (1) Letting students imagine their teaching targets were Groups 1), 2), and 3) led them to use simple expressions. (2) Having students imagine their teaching targets were Group 1) led them to use explanations that provided supplemental information. (3) The students that imagined Group 1) as their teaching targets were more likely to acquire knowledge accurately compared to the other groups. Our study findings clarified these three points. We believe that creating a written explanation enhances the effectiveness of assuming juniors as teaching targets.