2018 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages 193-200
Systemic inflammation induces brain neuronal inflammation, in turn causing acute cognitive disorders. Furthermore, neuronal inflammation is one cause of postoperative cognitive disorder (POCD) and delirium. However, no sufficiently established pharmacological treatment is available for neurocognitive inflammation. This study evaluated the possible neuroprotective effects of preconditioning with sevoflurane anesthesia on cognition and neuroinflammatory changes in an animal model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammation. Adult mice were randomly divided into (1) control, (2) 2% sevoflurane preconditioning for 1 h, (3) intraperitoneal 5 mg/kg LPS injection, and (4) 2% sevoflurane preconditioning for 1 h + LPS injection groups. At 24 h after 5 mg/kg LPS injection, microglial activation based on ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1) expression in the hippocampus was determined using immunostaining and immunoblotting. IL-1β and IL-6 immunoblotting were used as inflammation markers, and β-site of amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) immunoblotting was performed to evaluate amyloid β-protein (Aβ) accumulation. Long-term cognitive impairment was evaluated using fear conditioning tests. Intraperitoneal LPS increased levels of Iba-1 (150%), inflammation markers (160%), and Aβ accumulation (350%), and sevoflurane preconditioning suppressed these increases. Systemic LPS caused learning deficits. Sevoflurane also maintained long-term memory in mice receiving LPS injection. Sevoflurane preconditioning prevented long-term memory impairment in the mouse model administered systemic LPS by decreasing excessive microglial activation, inflammation, and Aβ accumulation. This study supports the hypothesis that sevoflurane preconditioning might also be beneficial for neuronal inflammation. Sevoflurane might be beneficial for reducing delirium and POCD.