The trends of new drug development in the 21st century were described. First, the history of drug development including that of the drug delivery system (DDS) was shown. Then, the recent drugs and therapeutic technology were discussed in detail. These topics are biomedicine, gene related technology, vaccine, hybrid artificial organ, chemical and phage library, fetal growth hormone, cell therapy, humanized anti-body and Viagra. In addition, some natural products were introduced, emphasizing the relationship between food and human health. Finally, I stated my opinion about the new drug development in the 21st century in Japan.