2012 Volume 84 Issue 2 Pages 44-59
This article aims to discuss the location types and location patterns of the R&D institutions of manufacturing enterprises in Shanghai. Such R&D institutions are classified into four location types according to the location relationship between them and other organizations: Headquarters-Production type, Headquarters type, Production type, and Independent type, among which the Headquarters-Production type is the most common. Most R&D institutions are concentrated in industrial zones or hi-tech parks. However, there are differences in industry and location pattern among the various types of R&D institutions. The Headquarters-Production and Production types are most common in the equipment and chemical industries with a wide distribution throughout the surburbs. The location patterns of the Headquarters and Independent types are similar: they are most common in the industrial zones near the central city. Various location factors lead to the diversity in location types and patterns seen in R&D institutions. Enterprises pay great attention to the need for all of their organizations to cooperate when establishing R&D institutions. As an enterprise grows, organizational separation is inevitable, leading to a variety of R&D location types. In this process, limited land scale and rising land costs in urban cities become important factors that accelerate the surburbanization of R&D institutions. Furthermore, the need for human resources, and the well-developed transport systems and communication networks in Shanghai make it unnecessary to be close to local universities or research institutes. In addition, regional image has also aroused concern and has become an important factor in the choice of R&D location.